COVID-19 AND INTERNAL MIGRATION IN SERBIA—GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE
Keywords:COVID-19 outbreak, internal migration, population redistribution, spatial patterns, Serbia
Internal migration is an essential part of regional population change. Driven by various determinants, internal migration has been unequal across time and space. Migration responses to the changes in societal circumstances make it relevant to investigate the spatial and temporal dimension of internal migration in Serbia before and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. The research aims to identify to what extent and in what way the pandemic has changed the magnitude and geographical patterns of internal migration in Serbia. The study is based on additionally processed official statistics on internal migration for the period 2018–2020, from March to December for each year, at the municipal, district (oblast, plural—oblasti), and regional levels. These are aggregate administrative data on usual residence registration by month. The derived data on the net migration rate is cartographically presented using the classification method natural Breaks (Jenks). Spatial dependence was assessed applying the spatial autocorrelation method, based on the Local Moran statistic. The results revealed that the pandemic affected not only the volume of internal migration but also its spatial patterns. The findings present new insights on the role of internal migration in reallocation of population across Serbia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic while underlying the importance of further research to deepen the understanding of internal migration trends upon the COVID-19 outbreak.
Anderson, B., Poeschel, F., & Ruhs, M. (2021). Rethinking labour migration: Covid-19, essential work, and systemic resilience. Comparative Migration Studies, 9, Article 45. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-021-00252-2
Anselin, L. (1995). Local indicators of spatial association – LISA. Geographical Analysis, 27(2), 93–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1995.tb00338.x
Bell, М., & Charles-Edwards, Е. (2014). Measuring internal migration around the globe: a comparative analysis (KNOMAD Working Paper No. 3). https://www.knomad.org/publication/measuring-internal-migration-around-globe-comparative-analysis
Bhandari, D., Kotera, Y., Ozaki, A., Abeysinghe, S., Kosaka, M., & Tanimoto, T. (2021). COVID-19: challenges faced by Nepalese migrants living in Japan. BMC Public Health, 21, Article 752. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10796-8
Fielding, T., & Ishikawa Y. (2021). COVID-19 and migration: A research note on the effects of COVID-19 on internal migration rates and patterns in Japan. Population, Space and Place, 27(6), Article e2499. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2499
Hafsa, B., Ahmed, R., & Kumar, R. (2021). Spatio-temporal pattern of tropical cyclones: the case of cyclones of the Bay of Bengal. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 71(3), 213–229. https://doi.org/10.2298/IJGI2103213H
Jenks, G. F. (1967). The Data Model Concept in Statistical Mapping. International Yearbook of Cartography, 7, 186–190. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Data-Model-Concept-in-Statistical-Mapping-Jenks/9551c4531a87b4ab01931bf5b68dac945ef3f9ab
Lović Obradović, S. (2019). Modeli prostornog ispoljavanja demografskih procesa u Srbiji [Models of spatial manifestation of demographic processes in Serbia]. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography.
Lović Obradović, S., Matović, S., & Filipović, M. (2021, September 30–October 2). Spatial-demographic patterns of the population infected with COVID-19 in Serbia in the early stage. International Demographic Forum “Demography and Global Changes”, Voronezh, Russia.
Lukić, T., Pivac, T., Solarević, M., Blešić, I., Živković, J., Penjišević, I., Golić, R., Kalenjuk Pivarski, B., Bubalo-Živković, M., & Pandžić, A. (2022). Sustainability of Serbian Villages in COVID-19 Pandemic Conditions. Sustainability, 14(2), Article 703. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020703
Lukić, V. (2013). Population Trends in Serbia and the Implications for the Settlement System. Forum geografic, 12(1), 67–75. https://doi.org/10.5775/fg.2067-4635.2013.070.i
Lukić, V. (2022). Migration and Mobility Patterns in Serbia. In E. Manić, V. Nikitović, & P. Djurović (Eds.), The Geography of Serbia: Nature, People, Economy (pp. 157–167) Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74701-5_12
Lukić, V., & Anđelković Stoilković, M. (2017). Interrelation of spatial disparities in development and migration patterns in transition economy: Serbia – Case study. Human Geographies – Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography, 11(1), 65–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.5719/hgeo.2017.111.4
Lukić, V., Predojević-Despić, J., Janeska, V., & Lozanoska, A. (2021). How is COVID-19 reshaping temporary and circular labour migration: Serbia and North Macedonia perspectives. Forum geografic, 20(1), 55–65. https://doi.org/10.5775/fg.2021.051.i
Mitchell, A. (2015). The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis, Volume 2: Spatial Measurements and Statistics. Esri Press.
Piccoli, L., Dzankic, J., & Ruedin, D. (2021). Citizenship, Migration and Mobility in a Pandemic (CMMP): A global dataset of COVID-19 restrictions on human movement. PLoS ONE, 16(3), Article e0248066. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248066
Podra, O., Petryshyn, N., Bayik, O., Bobko, U., & Levkiv, H. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the volume of labor migration, employment, and remittances. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 71(2), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.2298/IJGI2102195P
Shibayama, T., Sandholzer, F., Laa, B., & Brezina, T. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on commuting: A multi-country perspective. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 21(1), 70–93. https://doi.org/10.18757/ejtir.2021.21.1.5135
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (n.d.-a). Internal migration - data from 2011. [Data set]. https://data.stat.gov.rs/Home/Result/180602?languageCode=en-US
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (n.d.-b). Internal migration in the Republic of Serbia in 2018. [Unpublished raw data]. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (n.d.-c). Internal migration in the Republic of Serbia in 2019. [Unpublished raw data]. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (n.d.-d). Internal migration in the Republic of Serbia in 2020. [Unpublished raw data]. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.
Tobler, W. R. (1970). A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography, 46, 234–240. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2307/143141
United Nations. (1999). Resolution 1244 (1999). https://unmik.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/old_dnn/Res1244ENG.pdf
Vesković Anđelković, M. (2021). The experiences and expectations of returnees to Serbia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stanovništvo, 59(1), 47–60. https://doi.org/10.2298/STNV2101047V
Zakon o prebivalištu i boravištu građana [The Law on Permanent and Temporary Residence of Citizens], Službeni glasnik Republike Srbije No. 87 (2011).
Živanović, Z., Tošić, B., & Đorđević, J. (2010). Tipovi regiona u Srbiji i njihova teritorijalna neusklađenost [Regional types in Serbia and their territorial inconsistency]. Glasnik Srpskog geografskog društva, 90(2), 151–172. https://doi.org/10.2298/GSGD1002151Z
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.