APPLICATION OF THE WATER QUALITY INDEX IN THE TIMOK RIVER BASIN (SERBIA)
Keywords:Water Quality Index, water quality, water pollution classes, Timok River
The paper presents an analysis of water pollution carried out on the basis of the combined physico-chemical Serbian Water Quality Index (WQI) in the Timok River basin. The analysis covers various parameters (oxygen saturation, Five-Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand or BOD5, ammonium ion concentration, pH value, Water Total Nitrogen or WTN, Total Suspended Solids or TSS, orthophosphate concentration, electrical conductivity, temperature and the fecal coliform bacteria parameter) the values of which were calculated for four hydrological stations within the basin. The data obtained at each measurement station were averaged using the annual arithmetic average mean. The annual WQI values were calculated for a twenty-five year period (1990–2014) and they were in the range between 12 and 92, which means that the quality of water varied, ranging from “very bad” to “excellent”. The obtained results were interpreted and the watercourse quality was assessed using the comparison of water quality indicators according to the Serbian Classification of Surface Waters and the WQI method. The worst water quality was recorded in the Borska Reka River. Certain SWQI values are the result of water quality changes caused by wastewater from human settlements, industrial facilities, agricultural sources and illegal waste disposal sites in the basin.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, & Water Environment Federation. (2012). Standard Methods for examination of water and wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
Bharti, N., & Katyal, D. (2011). Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(1), 154–173. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2160726
Bordalo, A., Teixeira, R., & Wiebe, W. J. (2006). A Water Quality Index applied to an international shared river basin: the case of the Douro River. Environmental Management, 38(6), 910–920. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0037-6
Brankov, J., Milijašević, D., & Milanović, A. (2012). The Assessment of the Surface Water Quality using the Water Pollution Index: A case study of the Timok River (The Danube River Basin), Serbia. Archives of Environmental Protection, 38(1), 49–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10265-012-0004-x
Hernea, C., & Teche-Constantinescu, A.M. (2013). Variability of groundwater quality parameters from periurban area of Timisoaria (Romania). Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 14(1), 64–70.
Ismail, A., & Robescu, L. (2017). Chemical water quality assessment of the Danube river in the lower course using water quality indices. UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series B: Chemistry and Materials Science, 79(4), 51–62. Retrieved from https://www.scientificbulletin.upb.ro/rev_docs_arhiva/rez90c_587393.pdf
Jakovljević, D. (2012). Serbian and Canadian water quality index of Danube river in Serbia in 2010. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 62(3), 1–18. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/IJGI1203001J
Lumb, A., Halliwell, D., & Sharma, T. (2006). Application of the CCME Water Quality Index to Monitor Water Quality: A Case Study of the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 113(1–3), 411–429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-9092-6
Milanović, A., Milijašević, D., & Brankov, J. (2011). Assessment of polluting effects and surface water quality using water pollution index: a case study of Hydro-system Danube-Tisa-Danube, Serbia. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 6(2), 269–277. Retrieved from http://www.ubm.ro/sites/CJEES/viewTopic.php?topicId=180
Milijašević, D., Milanović, A., Brankov, J., & Radovanović, M. (2011). Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka River using the WPI (Water Pollution Index) method. Archives of Biological Sciences, 63(3), 819–824. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS1103819M
Milijašević, D. (2014). Physical geographic factors of the water balance and the possibilities for a sustainable use of water resources in the Тimok River Basin. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Faculty of Geography, Belgrade, Serbia.
Nistor, O. V., Botez, E., Andronoiu, D. G., & Mocanu, G. D. (2012). Water quality in the Galati district. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 13(2A), 862–868.
Ocokoljić, M., Milijašević, D., & Milanović, A. (2009). Klasifikacija rečnih voda Srbije po stepenu njihove zagađenosti [Classification of rivers in Serbia according to their pollution degree]. Zbornik radova - Geografski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, 57, 7–18. Retrieved from https://scindeks-clanci.ceon.rs/data/pdf/1450-7552/2009/1450-75520957007O.pdf
Pantelić, M., Dolinaj, D., Savić, S., Stojanović, V. M., & Nadj, I. (2012). Statistical Analysis of Water Quality Parameters of Veliki Bački Canal (Vojvodina, Serbia) in the Period 2000–2009. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 7(2), 255–264. Retrieved from http://www.ubm.ro/sites/CJEES/viewTopic.php?topicId=235
Razo, I., Carrizales, L., Castro, J., Díaz-Barriga, F., & Monroy, M. (2004). Arsenic and heavy metal pollution of soil, water and sediments in a semi-arid climate mining area in Mexico. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 152(1–4), 129–152. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:WATE.0000015350.14520.c1
Rigina, O. (2002). Environmental impact assessment of the mining and concentration activities in the Kola Peninsula, Russia by multidate remote sensing. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 75(1), 11–31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014248522919
Schrek, P. (1998). Environmental impact of uncontrolled waste disposal in mining and industrial areas in Central Germany. Environmental Geology, 35(1), 66–72. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050293
Singh, K. P., Tiwar, K. A., Panigary, P. B., & Mahato, K. M. (2013). Water Quality Indices Used for Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment Using GIS Technique: A Review. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 6(1), 1594–1600.
Takić, Lj., Mladenović-Ranisavljević, I., Vasović, D., & Djordjević, Lj. (2017). The Assessment of the Danube River Water Pollution in Serbia. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 10, 228–380. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3551-x
Tyagi, S., Sharma, B., Singh, P., & Dobhal, R. (2013). Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index. American Journal of Water Resources, 1(3), 34–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.12691/ajwr-1-3-3
Urošev, M., Milanović, A., & Milijašević, D. (2009). Assessment of the river habitat quality in undeveloped areas of Serbia applying the RHS (river habitat survey) method. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 59(2), 37–58. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/IJGI0902037U
Veljković, N., Stanković, M., & Milenković, S. (2000). Određivanje indeksa kvaliteta voda sliva Južne Morave primenom WQI metode [Determining water quality index of the Southern Morava basin by the application of WQI method]. In A. Djukić (Ed.), Zaštita voda 2000 [Waters’ Protection 2000]. Belgrade, Serbia: Jugoslovensko društvo za zaštitu voda.
Veljković, N., & Jovičić, M. (2007). Danube river water quality analysis using Water Quality Index methodology. Proceedings from Conference on Actual Problems of Water Use and Protection, Yugoslav Society for the Water Protection, 36, 49–54.
Veljković, N., Lekić, D., & Jovičić, M. (2008). Case study of Integrated Water Quality Management: Serbian Water Quality Index. Proceedings from XXIV Conference of the Danubian Countries on the Hydrological Forecasting and Hydrological Bases of Water Management, Slovenian National Committee for the IHP UNESCO, 171–178.
Zhukinskii, V. N. (2003). Environmental Risk and Environmental Damage to Surface Water Quality: Topicality, Terminology, Quantitative Estimates. Water Resources, 30(2), 191–198. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022970122076
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.