• Milena Nedeljković Knežević University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, Novi Sad
  • Olga Hadžić Deceased
  • Sladjana Nedeljković Electric Power Industry of Serbia, RB Kolubara, Lazarevac
  • James Kennell University of Greenwich, Faculty of Business, Department of Marketing, Events and Tourism, London



GLOBE cultural dimensions, organizational culture, national culture, entrepreneurial activities


National culture can influence entrepreneurship by creating a specific cultural framework that defines the possibilities for the recognition of opportunities for entrepreneurial activities, as well as their social desirability. Very large corporations, especially those that dominate a region, also have their own organizational cultures, which in turn influence local social culture, and which can constitute a specific subculture within society. The “Kolubara” mine is the largest in Serbia, employing more than 11,000 workers. As most of its employees are living close to its headquarters, the small town of Lazarevac (Central Serbia), the culture nurtured within this organization and among its employees is heavily intertwined with the social culture of the inhabitants of the town. The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) approach was used to investigate the relation between this organizational culture and national culture, by measuring the nine GLOBE cultural dimensions of the “Kolubara” employees and of the inhabitants of Lazarevac. The results of this are discussed and analyzed in the context of the ongoing economic transformation in many post-socialist economies. This study highlights the readiness of the people of small industrial towns, such as Lazarevac, to adapt to this ongoing transition and to undertake entrepreneurial activities in tourism during periods of industrial restructuring and the growth of service industries in former industrial areas.

Article metrics


Bakacsi, G., Takács, S., Karácsonyi, A., & Imrek, V. (2002). Eastern European Cluster: tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 69–80.

Baldacchino, G., & Dana, L. P. (2006). The impact of public policy on entrepreneurship: a critical investigation of the protestant ethic on a divided island jurisdiction. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 19(4), 419–430.

Binovska-Kocheva, A., & Kochoska, M. (2015). The influence of performance orientation on economic and social indicators. ERAZ konferencija 2015: Održivi ekonomski razvoj: savremeni i multidisciplinarni pristupi—Zbornik radova (pp. 458–466). Retrieved from

Bjeljac, Ž., Brankov, J., Jovičić, D., Ćurčić, N., & Terzić, A. (2013). Valorization of natural and anthropogenic tourist potentials in undeveloped regions of transition countries. Technics, Technologies, Education, Management, 8(3), 1237–1250.

Blum, D. (2007). National Identity and Globalization: Youth, State, and Society in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Booth, P., Chaperon, S. A., Kennell, J. S., & Morrison, A. M. (2020). Entrepreneurship in island contexts: A systematic review of the tourism and hospitality literature. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 85, 102438.

Carlisle, S., Kunc, M., Jones, E., & Tiffin, S. (2013). Supporting innovation for tourism development through multistakeholder approaches: experiences from Africa. Tourism Management, 35, 59–69.

Diamond, J., & Liddle, J. (2005). Management of Regeneration. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Dwyer, L., Dragićević, V., Armenski, T., Mihalič, T., & Knežević Cvelbar, L., (2016). Achieving destination competitiveness: an importance–performance analysis of Serbia. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(13), 1309–1336.

Emrich, C. G., Denmark, F. L., & den Hartog, D. N. (2004). Cross-cultural differences in gender egalitarianism: Implications for societies, organizations, and leaders. In R. J. House, P. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. Dorfman, & V. Gupta (Eds.), Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The Globe Study of 62 Societies (pp. 343–394). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Fisher, M., & Owen, U. (Eds.). (1991). Whose Cities? Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

Hassan, A., Kennell, J., & Chaperon, S. (2020). Rhetoric and reality in Bangladesh: elite stakeholder perceptions of the implementation of tourism policy. Tourism Recreation Research.

Hayton, J. C., George, G., & Zahra, S. A. (2002). National culture and entrepreneurship: a review of behavioural research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4), 33–52.

Hingtgen, N., Kline, C., Fernandes, L., & McGehee, N. G. (2015). Cuba in transition: tourism industry perceptions of entrepreneurial change. Tourism Management, 50, 184–193.

Hoffman, L. (2003). The marketing of diversity in the inner city: tourism and regulation in Harlem. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2), 286–299.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publications.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Cultures consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited, linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research, 38(1), 52–88.

House, R., Hanges, P., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the Globe: An Introduction to project of GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 3–10.

Jonas, A., & Ward, K. (2002). A world of regionalisms? Towards a US–UK urban and regional policy framework comparison. Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(4), 377–401.

Kabasakal, H., & Bodur, M. (2004). Humane Orientation in Societies, Organizations, and Leader Attributes. In R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, & V. Gupta (Eds.), Cultures, leadership and organizations: A 62 nation GLOBE study (pp. 564–601). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Keith, M., & Rogers, A. (1991). Rhetoric and Reality in the Inner City. London, UK: Mansell.

Kennell, J. (2011). New developments in the relationship between tourism policy and local economic development in the United Kingdom. Proceedings of the 13th International research and practice conference of the Russian state university for tourism and service, tourism and service: Education, challenges and prospects. Collection of Research Papers (pp. 186–202). Moscow: Russia. Russian State University for Tourism

and Service.

Kennell, J. (2013). After the Crisis: Cultural Tourism and Urban Regeneration in Europe. In G. Richards & M. Smith (Eds.), Handbook of Cultural Tourism (pp. 317–323). London, UK: Routledge.

Lazić, M., & Cvejić, S. (Eds.). (2011). Changes of basic social structures in Serbia during its fast transformation. Belgrade, Serbia: Čigoja.

Lehmann, T., & Gronau, W. (2019). Tourism development in transition economies of the western Balkans. Zeitschrift für Tourismuswissenschaft, 11(1), 45–64.

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.

McGuigan, J. (1996). Culture and the public sphere. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Mulec, I., & Wise, N. (2013). Indicating the competitiveness of Serbia's Vojvodina Region as an emerging tourism destination. Tourism Management Perspectives, 8, 68–79.

Nedeljković, M., Vukonjanski, J., Nikolić, M., Hadžić, O., & Šljukić, M. (2018). A comparative analysis of Serbian national culture and national cultures of some European countries by GLOBE project approach. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 68(3), 363–382.

Petrović, M. D., Blešić, I., Vujko, A., & Gajić, T. (2017). The role of agritourism’s impact on the local community in a transitional society: A report from Serbia. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 13(50), 146–163.

Petrović, M. D., Vujko, A., Gajić, T., Vuković, D. B., Radovanović, M., Jovanović, J. M., & Vuković, N. (2018). Tourism as an approach to sustainable rural development in post-socialist countries: A comparative study of Serbia and Slovenia. Sustainability, 10(1), 54.

Public Enterprise Electric Power Industry of Serbia. (2018). Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS). Retrieved from

Republički zavod za statistiku. (2018). Opštine i regioni u Republici Srbiji. Retrieved from

Rogers, R. (1997). Cities for a small planet. London, UK: Faber and Faber.

Saarinen, J., & Kask, T. (2008). Transforming tourism spaces in changing socio-political contexts: The case of Pärnu, Estonia, as a tourist destination. Tourism Geographies, 10(4), 452–473.

Shane, S. (1993). Cultural influences on national rates of innovation. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(1), 59–73.

Shane, S. (1995). Uncertainty avoidance and the preference for innovation championing roles. Journal of International Business Studies, 26, 47–68.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.

Stankov, U., & Dragićević, V. (2015). Changes in the spatial pattern of net earnings: Evidence from Serbia. Acta Oeconomica, 65(3), 351–365.

Vukonjanski, J., Nikolic, M., Hadézic, O., Terek, E., & Nedeljkovic, M. (2012). Relationships between GLOBE organizational culture dimensions, job satisfaction and leader-member exchange in Serbian organizations. Journal of East European Management Studies, 17(3), 333–368. Retrieved from

Williams, A. M., & Baláž, V. (2002). The Czech and Slovak Republics: conceptual issues in the economic analysis of tourism in transition. Tourism Management, 23(1), 37–45.

Zhao, X., Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2014). Cross-country differences in entrepreneurial activity: The role of national cultural practice and economic wealth. Beijing, China: Beijing Normal University.




How to Cite

Nedeljković Knežević, M. ., Hadžić, O. ., Nedeljković, S. ., & Kennell, J. . (2020). TOURISM ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING: GLOBE NATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE DIMENSIONS. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 70(1), 15–30.