• Bashar F. Maaroof University of Babylon, Babylon Center for Civilization and Historical Studies, Hillah



fluvial geomorphology, geomorphometry, river drainage system, geospatial techniques


This paper studies geomorphometric characteristics of the Al-Shakak drainage basin, which is one of the valleys of the eastern Al-Jazirah region in the eastern parts of the Misan Governorate in southern Iraq. The natural factors, which are represented by surface, geological structure, and climate, have a direct impact on forming these characteristics, such as the stream orders, stream length, mean stream length, bifurcation ratio, stream frequency, drainage density, and channel maintenance. The values of these parameters vary at the level of the main basin and the secondary basins. The total stream orders of the Al-Shakak main basin reached five orders, and their values varied at the level of the secondary basins. As for the lengths of the streams of the main Al-Shakak basin, they reached 175.607 km, most of which were in the large basins. Regarding the average length of the streams, it is measured 0.805 km at the level of the main basin, 0.766 km at the level of the first order, and 0.445 km at the level of the fourth order. The values of the river bifurcation of Al-Shakak basin 1 amount to 3.476, which is the highest value. As for Al-Shakak basin 3, it reached 1.3, which is the lowest value. In addition, the value of the stream frequency of the Al-Shakak basin amounts to 2.253 km/km2, and the drainage density reached 1.786 km/km2, with the channel maintenance being 0.561 km2/km.

Article metrics


Abboud, I. A., & Nofal, R. A. (2017). Morphometric analysis of wadi Khumal basin, western coast of Saudi Arabia, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 126, 58–74.

Ahsan, N., & Waqar, M. (2015). An Integrated Approach for Catchment Parameterization Through Geospatial Analysis: A Case Study of Kurang River Basin, Pakistan. Science International (Lahore), 27(2), 1309–1314.

Al-Kaabi, F. K. (2009). Hydrogeochemistry and evaluation some Selected wells, North East Misan Governorate [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Basrah.

Altin, T. B., & Altin, B. N. (2011). Development and morphometry of drainage network in volcanic terrain, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Geomorphology, 125(4), 485–503.

Arunachalam, S., & Sakthivel, R. (2014). Morphometric Analysis for Hard Rock Terrain of Upper Ponnaiyar Watershed, Tamilnadu – A GIS Approach. International Journal of Research Studies in Science, Engineering and Technology, 1(9), 205–209.

Bahrami, S. (2013). Analyzing the drainage system anomaly of Zagros basins: Implications for active tectonics. Tectonophysics, 608, 914–928.

Bali, R., Agarwal, K. K., Ali, S. N., Rastogi, S. K., & Krishna, K. (2012). Drainage morphometry of Himalayan Glacio-fluvial basin, India: Hydrologic and neotectonic implications. Environmental Earth Sciences, 66(4), 1163–1174.

Das, S., & Pardeshi, S. D. (2018). Morphometric analysis of Vaitarna and Ulhas river basins, Maharashtra, India: using geospatial techniques. Applied Water Science, 8(6), Article 158.

Deikran, D. B. (1995). The Geology of Suq Al-Shyukh Quadrangle, Sheet No. NI-38-10 (GM 37). Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV).

Drăguţ, L., Eisank, C., & Strasser, T. (2011). Local variance for multi-scale analysis in geomorphometry. Geomorphology, 130(3–4), 162–172.

Evans, I. S. (2012). Geomorphometry and landform mapping: What is a landform? Geomorphology, 137(1), 94–106.

Guth, P. L. (2011). Drainage basin morphometry: A global snapshot from the shuttle radar topography mission. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(7), 2091–2099.

Horton, R. E. (1945). Erosional development of streams and their drain–age basins; Hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 56(3), 275–370.

Jassim, S. Z., & Goff, J. C. (Eds). (2006). Geology of Iraq. Dolin; Moravian Museum.

Kumar Rai, P., Narayan Mishra, V., & Mohan, K. (2017). A study of morphometric evaluation of the Son basin, India using geospatial approach. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 7, 9–20.

Mahala, A. (2020). The significance of morphometric analysis to understand the hydrological and morphological characteristics in two different morpho-climatic settings. Applied Water Science, 10(1), Article 33.

Maitham Ali Al-Ghanmi. (2015). Hydrogeological Assessment Study of Al-Teeb Basin, East of Misan Governorate. Ministry of Water Resources.

Ministry of Transportation, Iraqi Meteorological Organization and Seismology, Baghdad. (n.d.). [Meteorological data].

Ministry of Water Resources I. G. S. A. (1992). Topographic map of Suq Al-Shuyoukh area, scale 1:100,000. The Republic of Iraq.

Perucca, L. P., & Angilieri, Y. E. (2011). Morphometric characterization of del Molle Basin applied to the evaluation of flash floods hazard, Iglesia Department, San Juan, Argentina. Quaternary International, 233(1), 81–86.

Schumm, S. A. (1956). Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 67(5), 597–646.

Shubbar, R. M., Salman, H. H., & Lee, D. I. (2017). Characteristics of climate variation indices in Iraq using a statistical factor analysis. International Journal of Climatology, 37(2), 918–927.

Sissakian, V. K., & Fouad, S. F. A. (2015). Geological Map of Iraq, Scale 1: 1000 000, 4th Edition, 2012. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 11(1), 9–16.

Strahler, A. N. (1957). Quantitative Analysis of Watershed Geomorphology. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 38(6), 913–920.




How to Cite

Maaroof, B. F. (2022). GEOMORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF THE RIVER DRAINAGE NETWORK AT AL-SHAKAK BASIN (IRAQ). Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 72(1), 1–13.