• Vladislav Spitsin Tomsk State University, Siberian Institute of the Future, Centre for Sustainable Development, Tomsk; Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Department of Economics, Tomsk
  • Darko B. Vuković Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Department of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Perm; Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, Belgrade
  • Elena Akerman Tomsk State University, Institute of Economics and Management, Tomsk; Tomsk Polytechnic University, School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Tomsk
  • Ludmila Borilo Tomsk State University, Siberian Institute of the Future, Centre for Sustainable Development, Tomsk
  • Natalia Chistyakova Tomsk State University, Siberian Institute of the Future, Centre for Sustainable Development, Tomsk; Tomsk Polytechnic University, School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Tomsk



ecological footprint, investment in innovation, uncontained emissions, sustainable development, Russia


This paper models the relationship between economic development and environmental progress. It investigates the relationship between investment in innovation and uncontained emissions in the selected Russian regions from 2013 to 2018. The database contains information for 72 locations and is comprised of 432 observations (panel data, 72 regions multiplied by 6 years). Random-effects regression models have been applied to analyze panel data. In a study of 72 Russian regions over the period of 2013–2018, this research demonstrates that the growing research and development (R&D) intensity of regional firms leads to a larger ecological footprint and growing emission intensity. These effects are negatively moderated by the per capita income of the region’s residents and regional enrollment in higher education. The effects are positively moderated by the export intensity of regional firms. The results suggest that economic and ecological aspects of sustainable development are at odds with each other and indicate that regional policymakers should account for the negative ecological externalities of economic development when devising policies aiming to facilitate regional growth.

Article metrics


Ahmed, Z., Ahmad, M., Rjoub, H., Kalugina, O. A., & Hussain, N. (2022). Economic growth, renewable energy consumption, and ecological footprint: Exploring the role of environmental regulations and democracy in sustainable development. Sustainable Development, 30(4), 595–605.

Anokhin, S. (2013). Venture migration: a quest for a low-hanging fruit? Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(5–6), 423–445.

Anokhin, S. A., Spitsin, V., Akerman, E., & Morgan, T. (2021). Technological leadership and firm performance in Russian industries during crisis. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 15, Article e00223.

Anokhin, S., & Wincent, J. (2012). Start-up rates and innovation: A cross-country examination. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(1), 41–60.

Audretsch, D. (2006). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Behera, S. R., & Dash, D. P. (2017). The effect of urbanization, energy consumption, and foreign direct investment on the carbon dioxide emission in the SSEA (South and Southeast Asian) region. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 96–106.

Berry, H., Kaul, A., & Lee, N. (2021). Follow the smoke: The pollution haven effect on global sourcing. Strategic Management Journal, 42(13), 2420–2450.

Bradshaw, M. J., & Vartapetov, K. (2003). A New Perspective on Regional Inequalities in Russia. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 44(6), 403–429.

Cairns, D., & Smyth, J. (2011). I wouldn’t mind moving actually: Exploring student mobility in Northern Ireland. International Migration, 49(2), 135–161.

Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. (Eds.). (2019). Smart Quintuple Helix Innovation Systems How Social Ecology and Environmental Protection are Driving Innovation, Sustainable Development and Economic Growth. Springer.

Carson, T. (1993). Friedman's Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility. Business & Professional Ethics Journal, 12(1), 3–32.

Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for a Life-Span Theory of Socioemotional Selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(5), 151–156.

Chen, Y., & Lee, C. C. (2020). Does technological innovation reduce CO2 emissions? Cross-country evidence. Journal of Cleaner Production, 263, Article 121550.

Cheng, X., Chen, L., & Sun, R. (2019). Modeling the non-point source pollution risks by combing pollutant sources, precipitation, and landscape structure. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(12), 11856–11863.

Dong, F., Yu, B., Hadachin, T., Dai, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, S., & Long, R. (2018). Drivers of carbon emission intensity change in China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 129, 187–201.

Elkington, J. (2018). 25 Years Ago I Coined the Phrase “Triple Bottom Line.” Here’s Why It’s Time to Rethink It. Harvard Business Review, 25, 2–5.

Endl, A., Tost, M., Hitch, M., Moser, P., & Feiel, S. (2021). Europe's mining innovation trends and their contribution to the sustainable development goals: Blind spots and strong points. Resources Policy, 74, Article 101440.

Friedman, M. (1970). A Friedman doctrine - The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits. The New York Times.

Frischmann, B. M., Marciano, A., & Ramello, G. B. (2019). Retrospectives: Tragedy of the Commons after 50 Years. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 33(4), 211–228.

Garrity, E. J. (2012). Tragedy of the Commons, Business Growth and the Fundamental Sustainability Problem. Sustainability, 4(10), 2443–2471.

Hatak, I., Harms, R., & Fink, M. (2015). Age, job identification, and entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(1), 38–53.–0213

Hout, M. (2012). Social and Economic Returns to College Education in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 379–400.

Jorgenson, A. K., & Burns, T. J. (2007). The political-economic causes of change in the ecological footprints of nations, 1991–2001: A quantitative investigation. Social Science Research, 36(2), 834–853.

Lee, B. S., Peng, J., Li, G., & He, J. (2012). Regional Economic Disparity, Financial Disparity, and National Economic Growth: Evidence from China. Review of Development Economics, 16(2), 342–358.

Li, H., Khattak, S. I., & Ahmad, M. (2021). Measuring the impact of higher education on environmental pollution: new evidence from thirty provinces in China. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 28, 187–217.

Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A., Pamuk, E. R., Cohen, R. D., Heck, K. E., Balfour, J. L., & Yen, I. H. (1998). Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 88(7), 1074–1080.

Maroto, M. (2016). Fifteen Years of Wealth Disparities in Canada: New Trends or Simply the Status Quo? Canadian Public Policy, 42(2), 152–167.

Marquardt, D. W. (1980). Comment: You Should Standardize the Predictor Variables in Your Regression Models. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 75(369), 87–91.

Metcalf, G. E. (2019). On the Economics of a Carbon Tax for the United States. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring, 405–484.

Mironenko, N., & Kolchugina, T. (2012). Export-Oriented Model of Sustainable Development in Russia (From the “Dutch Disease” to Innovative Development). Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 5(1), 112–119.

Mullen, A. L., Goyette, K. A., & Soares, J. A. (2003). Who Goes to Graduate School? Social and Academic Correlates of Educational Continuation after College. Sociology of Education, 76(2), 143–169.

Muñoz, P., & Cohen, B. (2017). Towards a social-ecological understanding of sustainable venturing. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 7, 1–8.

Nakamura, H., & Managi, S. (2020). Entrepreneurship and marginal cost of CO2 emissions in economic development. Economic Analysis and Policy, 67, 1–14.

Newell, J. P., & Henry, L. A. (2016). The state of environmental protection in the Russian Federation: a review of the post-Soviet era. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 57(6), 779–801.

Nicolini, M., & Tavoni, M. (2017). Are renewable energy subsidies effective? Evidence from Europe. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74, 412–423.

Petrović, M. D., Gelbman, A., Demirović, D., Gagić, S., & Vuković, D. B. (2017). The examination of the residents’ activities and dedication to the local community–an agritourism access to the subject. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 67(1), 37–52.

Pittau, M. G., Zelli, R., & Gelman, A. (2010). Economic Disparities and Life Satisfaction in European Regions. Social Indicators Research, 96(2), 339–361.

Rosstat. (2022). Regioni Rossii: Socialno-эkonomičeskie pokazateli [Regions of Russia: Socio-economic indicators].

Sakai, M., & Barrett, J. (2016). Border carbon adjustments: Addressing emissions embodied in trade. Energy Policy, 92, 102–110.

Schwab, K., Porter, M. E., & Sachs, J. D. (2002). The Global Competitiveness Report 2001–2002.

Slaper, T. F., & Hall, T. J. (2011). The Triple Bottom Line: What Is It and How Does It Work? Indiana Business Review, 86(1), 4–8.

Spitsin, V., Vukovic, D., Anokhin, S., & Spitsina, L. (2021). Company performance and optimal capital structure: evidence of transition economy (Russia). Journal of Economic Studies, 48(2), 313–332.

Stilwell, F., & Jordan, K. (2007). Who Gets What? Analysing Economic Inequality in Australia. Cambridge University Press.

Stricker, P. (2007). Toward a Culture of Nature: Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development in Cuba. Lexington Books.

Tan, L. (2005). The Paradox of Catching Up. In L. Tan (Ed.), The Paradox of Catching Up (pp. 163–172). Palgrave Macmillan.

Thompson, W. R., & Thompson, P. R. (1987). National Industries and Local Occupational Strengths: The Cross-Hairs of Targeting. Urban Studies, 24(6), 547–560.

United Nations. (2016). The sustainable development goals report 2016.

Vuković, D., Jovanović, A., & Đukić, M. (2012). Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 62(3), 49–64.

Vuković, D., & Wei, L. (2010). Regional competitiveness: the case of western China. Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 60(1), 107–124.

Wang, C., Wood, J., Wang, Y., Geng, X., & Long, X. (2020). CO2 emission in transportation sector across 51 countries along the Belt and Road from 2000 to 2014. Journal of Cleaner Production, 266, Article 122000.

York, R., Rosa, E. A., & Dietz, T. (2004). The Ecological Footprint Intensity of National Economies. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 8(4), 139–154.

Zeng, J., & Ren, J. (2022). How does green entrepreneurship affect environmental improvement? Empirical findings from 293 enterprises. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 18(1), 409–434.




How to Cite

Spitsin, V., Vuković, D. B., Akerman, E., Borilo, L., & Chistyakova, N. (2023). REGIONAL ISSUE, INNOVATION, AND THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 73(2), 221–236.

Most read articles by the same author(s)