• Jasna Micić Geographical Institute ''Jovan Cvijić'' SASA, Belgrade
  • Stefan Denda Geographical Institute ''Jovan Cvijić'' SASA, Belgrade
  • Marius Popescu Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, Brasov



pull factors, destination choice, risks, Serbia, Mediterranean


There are numerous pull forces that determine destination choice. In the contemporary turbulent conditions, safety and security risks have a growing role. This is particularly evident in the Mediterranean region, bearing in mind that the political crisis in the Arab world has reflected in this region as the largest receptive market. Therefore, the study has been conducted to determine which factors are the most important in the process of choosing a destination and whether the recent crises have affected travel habits. In addition to the descriptive statistics, the data obtained by the Likert scale were analyzed by independent samples t-test in SPSS. The results have revealed that price, service quality, and risk-related issues are the main parameters of destination choice. In this regard, the respondents expressed their understanding of contemporary security risks in the Mediterranean (terrorist acts, militant groups, migration crisis, etc.). The research also showed the influence of different sources of information on travel habits, primarily word-of-mouth process, and mass media. The crisis has affected the demand allocation, but not trip cancellation. Based on the abovementioned we can conclude that safety and security risks are not the only and decisive factor but represent an important parameter in the destination choice.

Article metrics


Al-Shammari, N., & Willoughby, J. (2019). Determinants of political instability across Arab Spring countries. Mediterranean Politics, 24(2), 196–217.

Aras, B., & Falk, R. (2015). Authoritarian ‘geopolitics’ of survival in the Arab. Third World Quarterly, 36(2), 322–336.

Assael, H. (1995). Consumer behavior and marketing action (6th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.

Awaritefe, O. D. (2004). Motivation and Other Considerations in Tourist Destination Choice: A Case Study of Nigeria. Tourism Geographies, 6(3), 303–330.

Baker, D. M. A. (2014). The Effects of Terrorism on the Travel and Tourism Industry. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 58–67.

Barling J., & Fincham, F. (1979). Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Dimensions of Perceived Locus of Control. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 134(2), 313–314.

Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a Sociology of International Tourism. Social Research, 39(1), 164–182. Retrieved from

Crompton, L. Y. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424.

Crotts, J. C. (2003). Theoretical perspectives on tourist criminal victimization. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1), 92–98. [Reprint of original article published in 1996, 7(1), 2–9]. Retrieved from documentSummary;dn=200305728;res=IELAPA;type=pdf

Dann, M. S. G. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184–194.

Denda, S., & Stojanović, J. (2016). Migration Crisis as a Security Challenge and Its Impacts on Tourism Demand. In D. Šantić (Ed.), Book of Abstracts of International Conference “Contemporary migration in a Changing World: New Perspectives and Challenges”, (p. 46). Belgrade: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Regional Studies Association and MIcARD.

Faulkner, B. (2001). Towards a framework for tourism disaster management. Tourism Management, 22(2), 135–147.

Fesenmaier, D. P., & Jeng, J. M. (2000). Assessing structure in the pleasure trip planning process. Tourism Analysis, 5(1), 13–27. Retrieved from

Floyd, M. F., Gibson, H., Pennington-Gray, L., & Thapa, B. (2004). The Effect of Risk Perceptions on Intentions to Travel in the Aftermath of September 11, 2001. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 15(2–3), 19–38.

Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2011). An exploratory inquiry into destination risk perceptions and risk reduction strategies of first time vs. repeat visitors to a highly volatile destination. Tourism Management, 32(2), 266–276.

Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2006). Tourist Destination Risk Perception: The Case of Israel. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 14(2), 83–108.

Gonzalez-Herrero, A., & Pratt, C. B. (1998). Marketing crises in tourism: Communication strategies in the United States and Spain. Public Relations Review, 24(1), 83–97.

George, R. (2010). Visitor perceptions of crime-safety and attitudes towards risk: The case of Table Mountain National Park, Cape Town. Tourism Management, 31(6), 806–815.

Groizard, L. J., Ismael, M., & Santana, M. (2016). The economic consequences of political upheavals: The case of the Arab Spring and international tourism. Retrieved from

Hamid, S., McCants, W., & Dar, R. (2017). Islamism after the Arab Spring: Between the Islamic State and the nation-state. Retrieved from

Institute for Economics & Peace. (2012–2016). Global Terrorism Index. Retrieved from

Iso-Ahola, E. S. (1982). Toward a social psychological theory of tourism motivation: A rejoinder. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 256–262.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1983). Towards a social psychology of recreational travel. Leisure Studies, 2(1), 45–56.

Kingsbury, P. T., & Brunn, S. D. (2004). Freud, tourism and terror: traversing the fantasies of post-September 11 travel magazines. Journal of Tourism and Travel Marketing, 15(2–3), 39–61.

Kozak, M., Crotts, J. C., & Law, R. (2007). The Impact of the Perception of Risk on International Travellers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 233–242.

Kozak, M. (2002). Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations. Tourism Management, 23(3), 221–232.

Law, R. (2006). The Perceived Impact of Risks on Travel Decisions. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(4), 289–300.

Lepp, A., & Gibson, H. (2003). Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 606–624.

Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E., & Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management, 29(3), 458–468.

Mannell, R., & Iso-Ahola, S. (1987). Psychological nature of leisure and tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(3), 314–331.

Mansfeld, Y., & Winckler, O. (2015). Can this be spring? Assessing the impact of the “Arab Spring” on the Arab tourism industry. Tourism – An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 63(2), 205–223. Retrieved from

Martin, W. C., & Lueg, J. E. (2013). Modeling Word-of-Mouth Usage. Journal of Business Research, 66(7), 801–808.

Mayo, E., & Jarvis, L. (1981). The psychology of leisure travel: Effective Marketing and Selling of Travel Services. Boston, MA: CBI Publishing.

Mowen, J., & Minor, M. (1998). Consumer Behavior (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Oppewal, H., Huybers, T., & Crouch, I. G. (2015). Tourist destination and experience choice: A choice experimental analysis of decision sequence effects. Tourism Management, 48, 467–476.

Pearce, P. L., & Caltabiano, M. L. (1983). Inferring travel motivation from travelers’ experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 22(2), 16–20.

Pearce, P. L. (1988). The Ulysses Factor: Evaluating Visitors in Tourist Settings. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Perles-Ribes, J. F., Ramón-Rodríguez, A. B., Moreno-Izquierdo, L., & Torregrosa Martí, M. T. (2016). Winners and losers in the Arab uprisings: Mediterranean tourism perspective. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(16), 1810–1829.

Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Tormala, Z. L. (2002). Thought confidence as a determinant of persuasion: The self–validation hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), 722–741.

Plog, S. C. (1974). Why Destination Areas Rise and Fall in Popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly, 14(4), 55–58.

Qi, C. X., Gibson, H. J., & Zhang, J. J. (2009). Perceptions of Risk and Travel Intentions: The Case of China and the Beijing Olympic Games. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(1), 43–67.

Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Chaos, crises and disasters: a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 25(6), 669–683.

Rittichainuwat, B. H., Qu, H., & Mongkhonvanit, C. (2008). Understanding the motivation of travelers on repeat visits to Thailand. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(1), 5–21.

Roehl, W. S., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (1992). Risk Perceptions and Pleasure Travel: An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 30(4), 17–26.

Ryan, C. (1998). The travel career ladder: An Appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(4), 936–957.

Ryan, C., Page, S. J., & Aicken, M. (Eds.). (2005). Taking Tourism to the Limits: Issues, Concepts and Managerial Perspectives. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.

Salamey, I. (2015). Post-Arab Spring: changes and challenges. Third World Quarterly, 36(1), 111–129.

Schroeder, A., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2014). Perceptions of crime at the Olympic Games. What role does media, travel advisories, and social media play? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20(3), 225–237.

Seyidov, J., & Adomaitienė, R. (2016). Factors influencing local touristʼs decision-making on choosing a destination: A case of Azerbaijan. EKONOMIKA, 95(3), 112–128.

Simpson, J. J., Simpson, P. M., & Cruz-Milán, O. (2016). Attitude towards immigrants and security: Effects on destination-loyal tourists. Tourism Management, 57, 373–386.

Sirakaya, E., McLellan, W. R., & Uysal, M. (1996). Modeling Vacation Destination Decisions: A Behavioral Approach. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 5(1–2), 57–75.

Sönmez, S. F. & Graefe, A. R. (1998). Influence of Terrorism Risk on Foreign Tourism Decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112–144.

Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Mazzarol, T. (2008). Factors influencing word of mouth effectiveness: receiver perspectives. European Journal of Marketing, 42(3), 344–364.

Tasci, A. D. A., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination Image and Its Functional Relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413–425.

Timothy, D. J. (2006). Safety and security issues in tourism. In D. Buhalis & C. Costa (Eds.), Tourism Management Dynamics: Trends, management, and tools (pp. 19–28). Oxford, UK; Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann.

United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2011–2017). Tourism Highlights. Retrieved from

United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2018). UNWTO Tourism Highlights (2018th ed.). Retrieved from

Uysal, M., Li, X., & Sirakaya-Turk, E. (2008). Push-pull dynamics in travel decisions. In O. Haemoon & P. Abraham (Eds.), Handbook of Hospitality Marketing Management (pp. 412– 439). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Ltd.

Vincent, V. C., & De Los Santos, G. (1990). Winter Texans: Two Segments of the Senior Travel Market. Journal of Travel Research, 29(1), 9–12.

World Economic Forum. (2011–2017). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. Retrieved from

World Tourism and Travel Council. (2019). Travel & tourism economic impact 2019 world. Retrieved from




How to Cite

Micić, J. ., Denda, S. ., & Popescu, M. . (2019). THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RISK-RELATED CHALLENGES IN TOURIST DESTINATION CHOICE. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 69(1), 39–52.