• Jovan Mihajlović Polytechnic School, Kragujevac



landspout, non-supercell tornado, synoptic types, cumulonimbus (Cb), Sombor


Around 14:00 UTC, on July 10, 2014 a non-supercell tornado-a landspout, formed and occurred within a convective cloudiness in the S-SW upper air flow and moved over Sombor (45°46' N, 19°06' E, h=89 m). Synoptic conditions, type of synoptic situation which caused the landspout event, CAPE, LI indices and adiabatic stability of the atmosphere have been analysed in this paper. An analysis of sounding measurements and satellite images has also been done. Based on field survey analysis and using the Fujita scale method (F-scale), damage estimates have been shown in order to determine the tornado strength. The three main objectives of this research are: 1) analysis of atmospheric synoptic conditions that caused the landspout development in northern Backa using the data obtained from upper air and surface maps; 2) investigation into the satellite images data and radiosounding measurements; 3) to determine the evolution of the parent cloud from which the landspout developed using these methods. This article therefore represents a contribution to understanding of atmospheric conditions which favour a suitable synoptic and thermodynamic environment for a landspout genesis and development.

Article metrics


Agee, E., & Jones, E. (2009). Proposed Conceptual Taxonomy for Proper Identification and Classification of Tornado Events, Weather and Forecasting, 24, 609–617, doi:

AMS Glossary — American Meteorological Society (2012). Retrieved on September 17, 2016, from

Bluestein, H. B. (1985). The formation of a “lands-pout” in a “broken-line” squall line in Oklahoma. Preprints, Fourteenth Conference on Severe Local Storms (pp. 267–270). Indianapolis, IN: American Meteorological Society.

Brady, R. H., & Szoke, E. J. (1988). The landspout — a common type of northeast Colorado tornado. Preprints, Fifteenth Conference on Severe Local Storms (pp. 312–315). Baltimore, MD, Boston MA: American Meteorological Society. (2014). Retrieved on October 16, 2014, from

Ducić, V. & Tanasijević, Z. (1993). Pojava trombe u valjevskom kraju. Glasnik Srpskog geografskog društva, 73(1), 25–32. Retrieved from

EUMeTrain (n.d.). Retrieved on September 17, 2016, from

European Severe Weather Database (n.d.). Retrieved on September 12, 2016, from

European Storm Forecast Experiment @ (n.d.). Retrieved on September 12, 2016, from

Fujita, T. T. (1981). Tornadoes and downbursts in the context of generalized planetary scales. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 38, 1511–1534. doi:<1511:TADITC>2.0.CO;2

Haby Hints — The Weather Prediction (n.d.). Retrieved on September 12, 2016, from


ogue, R., Joe P., & Nichols, T. R. (1989). The 17 September 1988 weak tornadic storm in Metro Toronto, Ontario Region. Atmospheric Environment Service, 17, Technical Note. 89–2.

King, P., Leduc M. J., & Murphy, B. P. (1996). The climatology of tornadoes in southern Ontario: Possible effects of lake breezes. Preprints, Eighteenth Conference on Severe Local Storms (pp. 627–630). San Francisco, CA: American Meteorological Society.

Lee, B. D., & Wilhelmson, R. B. (1997). The numerical simulation of non-supercell tornadogenesis. Part I: initiation and evolution of pretornadic misocyclone circulations along a dry outflow boundary. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 54, 32–60. doi:<0032:TNSONS>2.0.CO;2

Maksimović, S. (1987). Mesto i uloga meteorologije u zaštiti od elementarnih nepogoda, U: Zbornik radova „Prvo jugoslovensko savetovanje o elementarnim nepogodama i katastrofama“( pp. 221 – 232). Beograd: Savezni hidrometeorološki zavod,

Mété (1995–2016). Retrieved on September 12, 2016. Retrieved from

Mihajlović, J., Ducić, V., Burić, D., Ivanović, R., & Ristić, D. (2013). Landspout across Novi Beograd, 24 may 2012: Synoptic analysis. Glasnik Srpskog geografskog društva, 93(2), 55–72. doi:

Mihajlović, J., Ducić, V., & Burić, D. (2014). Tornado occurrence nearby Valjevo on 27 May 2014 – analysis of weather situation. Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijić SASA, 64(3), 279–292. doi:

Мihајlоvić, Ј., Ducić, V., Burić, D., Ristić, D. (2015). Тrоmbа u Sоmbоru — аnаlizа slučаја 10.07.2014. Zbоrnik rаdоvа, 4. Srpski kоngrеs gеоgrаfа sа mеđunаrodnim učеšćеm „Dоstignućа, аktuеlnоsti i izаzоvi gеоgrаfskе nаukе i prаksе“, pоvоdоm 150 gоdinа rоđеnjа Јоvаnа Cviјićа. Kоpаоnik 07–09.10.2015, Univеrzitеt u Bеоgrаdu, Gеоgrаfski fаkultеt, Srpsko gеоgrаfskо društvо.

Mihajlović, J., Ducić, V., & Burić, D. (2016). Tornadic waterspout event in Split (Croatia) – analysis of meteorological environment. Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijić SASA, 66(2), 185-202. doi: DOI:10.2298/IJGI1602185M

Murphy, B. P. (1991). Tornado and flash flood in southwestern Ontario on 31 May 1991. Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, Technical Note. 91–3.

Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia — RHMSS (2016). Retrieved on September 12, 2016, from

Radovanović, M. (2009). Tromba kod Inđije — analiza slučaja 06. juna 2008. godine. Glasnik Srpskog geografskog društva, 89(4), 295–304.

Roberts, R. D., & Wilson, J. W. (1995). The genesis of three nonsupercell tornadoes observed with dual-Doppler radar. Monthly Weather Review, 123, 3408–3436. doi:<3408:TGOTNT>2.0.CO;2

Rogash, J. A., (1990). An investigation of forcing mechanisms during a surprise tornadic thunderstorm, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NWS SR-128. Fort Worth, TX: Scientific Services Division. Retrieved from — Create Sounding (n.d.). Retrieved on September 13, 2016, from

Sills, D.M.L. (1998): Lake and land breezes in southwestern Ontario: observations, analyses and numerical modelling (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System

Sills, D. M. L., & King, P. W. S. (2000). Landspouts at lake breeze fronts in southern Ontario. Preprints, Twentieth Conference on Severe Local Storms (pp. 243–246). Orlando, FL: American Meteorological Society.

Sioutas, M. V. (2011). A tornado and waterspout climatology for Greece. Atmospheric Research, 100, 344–356. doi:

Sioutas, M. & Flocas, H. A. (2003). Hailstorms in Northern Greece: synoptic patterns and thermodynamic environment. Theoretical and Applied Climatoogy, 75, 189–202. doi:

Smith, R. (1996). Non-supercell tornadoes: A review for forecasters. Technical attachment. Memphis, TN: NWSFO.

Vasiloff, S.V. (1993). Single Doppler radar study of a variety of tornado types. In C. Church, D. Burgess, C. Doswell & R. Davies-Jone (Eds.), The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (pp. 223–231). American Geophysical. Union. doi:

Vuјеvić, P. (1948). Меtеоrоlоgiја. Bеоgrаd: Prosvеtа

Wetter3-aktuelle Wetterkarten (n.d.). Retrieved on September 13, 2016, from

Wilson, J.W., & Wakimoto, R.M. (1989). Non-supercell tornadoes. Monthly Weather Review, 117, 1113–1140. doi:<1113:NST>2.0.CO;2

YouTube (2014). Retrieved on October 12, 2014, from




How to Cite

Mihajlović, J. (2017). ANALYSIS OF A NON-SUPERCELL TORNADO IN SOMBOR ON JULY 10, 2014. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 67(2), 115–133.