• Ericson H. Peñalba Bulacan State University, Education Department, Meneses Campus, Bulacan
  • Albert Patrick J. David Bulacan State University, Information Technology Department, Meneses Campus, Bulacan
  • Michael John D. Mabanta Bulacan State University, Information Technology Department, Meneses Campus, Bulacan
  • Chaddlyn Rose C. Samaniego Bulacan State University, Education Department, Meneses Campus, Bulacan
  • Sheryl D. S. Ellamil Bulacan State University, Information Technology Department, Meneses Campus, Bulacan



climate change adaptation, coastal communities, local knowledge, thematic network analysis, participatory GIS


Climate change poses challenges and risks to coastal communities, and the adaptation of local residents is a critically relevant issue that needs to be addressed in the policymaking process. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the perceptions and experiences of climate change among coastal community residents in the Philippines. This study used a combination of methods, such as participatory mapping exercises, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and document analyses. The data, which were primarily collected from three coastal villages in the province of Bulacan, were subjected to a thematic network analysis. The findings revealed four dominant themes pertaining to climate change adaptation in a coastal community setting: vulnerability conditions, risk awareness, risk perceptions, and climate change awareness and perceptions. In particular, it was found out that the communities were exposed to the threats of natural hazards like flood and storm surge. Such exposure highlighted the residents' concerns over the risks of hazards on their livelihoods and properties. The residents also observed the unpredictability and the worsening effects of climate change. With their direct experiences of the natural hazards' impacts and awareness of the presence of risks, residents had undertaken actions to build their adaptive capacity. This study then highlights the value of integrating local knowledge into the mapping exercises, revealing crucial information regarding vulnerabilities, risks, and adaptation practices.

Article metrics


Adger, W. N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M. M. Q., Conde, C., O’Brien, K., Pulhin, J., Pulwarty, R., . . . Takahashi, K. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (pp. 717–743). Retrieved from

Ahmed, S., Haklay, M., Tacoli, C., Githiri, G., Dávila, J. D., Allen, A., & Fèvre, E. M. (2019). Participatory mapping and food centred justice in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Geo: Geography and Environment, 6(1), e00077.

Akbar, A., Flacke, J., Martinez, J., Aguilar, R., & van Maarseveen, M. F. A. M. (2020). Knowing my village from the sky: A collaborative spatial learning framework to integrate spatial knowledge of stakeholders in achieving sustainable development goals. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(9), 515.

Alejandrino, I. K., Lagmay, A. M., & Eco, R. N. (2016). Shallow landslide Hazard Mapping for Davao Oriental, Philippines, Using a Deterministic GIS Model. In J. L. Drake, Y. Y. Kontar, J. C. Eichelberger, T. S. Rupp, & K. M. Taylor (Eds.), Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research: Vol. 48. Communicating Climate-Change and Natural Hazard Risk and Cultivating Resilience (pp. 131–147).

Attride-Stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research. Qualitative Research, 1(3), 385–405.

Bankoff, G. (2003). Cultures of Disaster: Society and Natural Hazard in the Philippines. London, UK: Routledge.

Bijker, R. A., & Sijtsma, F. J. (2017). A portfolio of natural places: Using a participatory GIS tool to compare the appreciation and use of green spaces inside and outside urban areas by urban residents. Landscape and Urban Planning, 158, 155–165.

Brown, G., & Kyttä, M. (2018). Key issues and priorities in participatory mapping: Toward integration or increased specialization? Applied Geography, 95, 1–8.

Brown, G., Schebella, M. F., & Weber, D. (2014). Using participatory GIS to measure physical activity and urban park benefits. Landscape and Urban Planning, 121, 34–44.

Bukvic, A., Rohat, G., Apotsos, A., & de Sherbinin, A. (2020). A systematic review of coastal vulnerability mapping. Sustainability, 12(7), 2822.

Burdon, D., Potts, T., McKinley, E., Lew, S., Shilland, R., Gormley, K., . . . Forster, R. (2019). Expanding the role of participatory mapping to assess ecosystem service provision in local coastal environments. Ecosystem Services, 39, 101009.

Cadag, J. R. D., & Gaillard, J. C. (2012). Integrating knowledge and actions in disaster risk reduction: The contribution of participatory mapping. Area, 44(1), 100–109.

Catane, S. G., Carag, J. W. M., Flora, J. R. R., Go, C. M. M., Capino, J. B., Cesista, I. Y. A., . . . Jajalla, M. A. B. (2019). Articulating geomorphology and geohazards in the coastal development issues of communities along the northern coasts of Manila Bay, Philippines. Retrieved from

Cheung, W., Houston, D., Schubert, J. E., Basolo, V., Feldman, D., Matthew, R., . . . Luke, A. (2016). Integrating resident digital sketch maps with expert knowledge to assess spatial knowledge of flood risk: A case study of participatory mapping in Newport Beach, California. Applied Geography, 74, 56–64.

Cinderby, S. (1999). Geographic information systems (GIS) for participation: the future of environmental GIS? International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 11(3), 304–315.

Cinderby, S., Snell, C., & Forrester, J. (2008). Participatory GIS and its application in governance: The example of air quality and the implications for noise pollution. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 13(4), 309–320.

Codjoe, S. N. A., Owusu, G., & Burkett, V. (2013). Perception, experience, and indigenous knowledge of climate change and variability: The case of Accra, a sub-Saharan African city. Regional Environmental Change, 14, 369–383.

Cogut, A. (2016). Open Burning of Waste: A Global Health Disaster. Retrieved from

Damastuti, E., & de Groot, R. (2019). Participatory ecosystem service mapping to enhance community-based mangrove rehabilitation and management in Demak, Indonesia. Regional Environmental Change, 19, 65–78.

Dunn, C. E. (2007). Participatory GIS — a people's GIS? Progress in Human Geography, 31(5), 616–637.

Eckstein, D., Künzel, V., Schäfer, L., & Winges, M. (2020). Global Climate Risk Index 2020: Who Suffers Most from Extreme Weather Events? Weather-Related Loss Events in 2018 and 1999 to 2018. Retrieved from

Endo, I., Magcale-Macandog, D. B., Kojima, S., Johnson, B. A., Bragais, M. A., Macandog, P. B. M., & Scheyvens, H. (2017). Participatory land-use approach for integrating climate change adaptation and mitigation into basin-scale local planning. Sustainable Cities and Society, 35, 47–56.

Engle, N. L., & Lemos, M. C. (2010). Unpacking governance: Building adaptive capacity to climate change of river basins in Brazil. Global Environmental Change, 20(1), 4–13.

Esteban, M., Takagi, H., Mikami, T., Aprilia, A., Fujii, D., Kurobe, S., & Utama, N. A. (2017). Awareness of coastal floods in impoverished subsiding coastal communities in Jakarta: Tsunamis, typhoon storm surges and dyke-induced tsunamis. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 23, 70–79.

Giuffrida, N., Le Pira, M., Inturri, G., & Ignaccolo, M. (2019). Mapping with stakeholders: An overview of public participatory GIS and VGI in transport decision-making. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 8(4), 198.

Gonzalez, M. (2009). Blank map – Philippines. Retrieved from

Granderson, A. A. (2014). Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens. Climate Risk Management, 3, 55–64.

Haklay, M., & Francis, L. (2018). Participatory GIS and community-based citizen science for environmental justice action. In J. Chakraborty, G. Walker, & R. Holifield (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice (pp. 297–308). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Haworth, B. T., Bruce, E., Whittaker, J., & Read, R. (2018). The Good, the Bad, and the Uncertain: Contributions of Volunteered Geographic Information to Community Disaster Resilience. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, 183.

Hessel, R., van den Berg, J., Kaboré, O., van Kekem, A., Verzandvoort, S., Dipama, J.-M., & Diallo, B. (2009). Linking participatory and GIS-based land use planning methods: A case study from Burkina Faso. Land Use Policy, 26(4), 1162–1172.

Ioki, K., Din, N. M., Ludwig, R., James, D., Hue, S. W., Johari, S. A., . . . Phua, M. (2019). Supporting forest conservation through community-based land use planning and participatory GIS – lessons from Crocker Range Park, Malaysian Borneo. Journal for Nature Conservation, 52, 1–11.

Kar, B., Sieber, R., Haklay, M., & Ghose, R. (2016). Public participation GIS and participatory GIS in the era of GeoWeb. The Cartographic Journal, 53(4), 296–299.

Käyhkö, N., Khamis, Z. A., Eilola, S., Virtanen, E., Muhammad, M. J., Viitasalo, M., & Fagerholm, N. (2019). The role of place-based local knowledge in supporting integrated coastal and marine spatial planning in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Ocean & Coastal Management, 177, 64–75.

Kellens, W., Zaalberg, R., Neutens, T., Vanneuville, W., & De Maeyer, P. (2011). An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian Coast. Risk Analysis, 31(7), 1055–1068.

Khadka, C., Aryal, K. P., Edwards-Jonášová, M., Upadhyaya, A., Dhungana, N., Cudlin, P., & Vacik, H. (2018). Evaluating participatory techniques for adaptation to climate change: Nepal case study. Forest Policy and Economics, 97, 73–82.

Klonner, C., Usón, T. J., Marx, S., Mocnik, F.-B., & Höfle, B. (2018). Capturing flood risk perception via sketch maps. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 7(9), 359.

Lagmay, A. M. F. A., Racoma, B. A., Aracan, K. A., Alconis-Ayco, J., & Saddi, I. L. (2017). Disseminating near-real-time hazards information and flood maps in the Philippines through Web-GIS. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 59, 13–23.

Levine, A. S., & Feinholz, C. L. (2015). Participatory GIS to inform coral reef ecosystem management: Mapping human coastal and ocean uses in Hawaii. Applied Geography, 59, 60–69.

Lopes, R., & Videira, N. (2015). Conceptualizing stakeholders’ perceptions of ecosystem services: A Participatory systems mapping approach. Environmental and Climate Technologies, 16, 36–53.

Mapedza, E., Wright, J., & Fawcett, R. (2003). An investigation of land cover change in Mafungautsi Forest, Zimbabwe, using GIS and participatory mapping. Applied Geography, 23(1), 1–21.

Mavhura, E. (2019). Systems analysis of vulnerability to hydrometeorological threats: An exploratory study of vulnerability drivers in Northern Zimbabwe. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 10(2), 204–219.

McCall, M. K., & Minang, P. A. (2005). Assessing participatory GIS for community-based natural resource management: claiming community forests in Cameroon. The Geographical Journal, 171(4), 340–356.

Merschdorf, H., & Blaschke, T. (2018). Revisiting the role of place in geographic information science. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 7(9), 364.

Meyer, M. A., Hendricks, M., Newman, G. D., Masterson, J. H., Cooper, J. T., Sansom, G., . . . Cousins, T. (2018). Participatory action research: Tools for disaster resilience education. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 9(4/5), 402–419.

Mialhe, F., Gunnell, Y., Ignacio, J. A. F., Delbart, N., Ogania, J. L., & Henry, S. (2015). Monitoring land-use change by combining participatory land-use maps with standard remote sensing techniques: Showcase from a remote forest catchment on Mindanao, Philippines. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 36, 69–82.

Minano, A., Johnson, P. A., & Wandel, J. (2018). Visualizing flood risk, enabling participation and supporting climate change adaptation using the Geoweb: The case of coastal communities in Nova Scotia, Canada. GeoJournal, 83(3), 413–425.

Mukhopadhyay, A., Dasgupta, R., Hazra, S., & Mitra, D. (2012). Coastal hazards and vulnerability: A review. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2(1), 57–69. Retrieved from

Municipal Planning and Development Office, Province of Bulacan. (2019). Road network map: Municipality of Bulakan. Bulakan, Philippines: Author.

Office of the Barangay Council of Bambang. (2016). Barangay disaster risk reduction and management plan (2016-2019). Bulakan, Philippines: Author.

Office of the Barangay Council of Perez. (2019). Barangay disaster risk reduction and management plan (2019-2021). Bulakan, Philippines: Author.

Office of the Barangay Council of Taliptip. (2016). Barangay disaster risk reduction and management plan (2016-2019). Bulakan, Philippines: Author.

Oh, H.-J., & Lee, S. (2011). Landslide susceptibility mapping on Panaon Island, Philippines using a geographic information system. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62, 935–951.

Onencan, A. M., Meesters, K., & Van de Walle, B. (2018). Methodology for participatory GIS risk mapping and citizen science for Solotvyno Salt Mines. Remote Sensing, 10(11), 1828.

Opiso, E. M., Puno, G. R., Alburo, J. L. P., & Detalla, A. L. (2016). Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and FR method along the Cagayan de Oro-Bukidnon-Davao City Route Corridor, Philippines. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 20, 2506–2512.

Osti, R., Tanaka, S., & Tokioka, T. (2008). Flood hazard mapping in developing countries: Problems and prospects. Disaster Prevention and Management, 17(1), 104–113.

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. (2011). Climate change in the Philippines. Retrieved from

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2015). Barangays in the municipality of Bulacan. Retrieved from

Preston, B. L., Yuen, E. J., & Westaway, R. M. (2011). Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: A review of approaches, benefits, and risks. Sustainability Science, 6, 177–202.

Provincial Government of Bulacan. (2014). DRR-CCA Enhanced Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan 2010-2030. Retrieved from

Raza, T. (2018). Localizing disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in planners’ and decision makers’ agenda: Technical comprehensive model, Quezon City, Philippines. Procedia Engineering, 212, 1311–1318.

Reichel, C., & Frömming, U. U. (2014). Participatory mapping of local disaster risk reduction knowledge: An Example from Switzerland. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 5, 41–54.

Reyna-Bensusan, N., Wilson, D. C., & Smith, S. R. (2018). Uncontrolled burning of solid waste by households in Mexico is a significant contributor to climate change in the country. Environmental Research, 163, 280–288.

Smith, D. A. (2003). Participatory mapping of community lands and hunting yields among the Buglé of Western Panama. Human Organization, 62(4), 332–343.

Sullivan-Wiley, K. A., Short Gianotti, A. G., & Casellas Connors, J. P. (2019). Mapping vulnerability: Opportunities and limitations of participatory community mapping. Applied Geography, 105, 47–57.

Tauzer, E., Borbor-Cordova, M. J., Mendoza, J., De La Cuadra, T., Cunalata, J., & Stewart-Ibarra, A. M. (2019). A participatory community case study of periurban coastal flood vulnerability in southern Ecuador. PLoS ONE, 14(10), e0224171.




How to Cite

Peñalba, E. H., David, A. P. J., Mabanta, M. J. D., Samaniego, C. R. C. ., & Ellamil, S. D. S. . (2021). CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: THE CASE OF COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES. Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 71(2), 115–133.