IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CARPATHIAN CONVENTION IN SERBIA—THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABILITY ASPECTS
Keywords:Carpathian Convention, sustainable development, indicators, Serbia, Đerdap National Park
AbstractOne of the biggest and most important mountain ranges in Europe, the Carpathians, is being threatened by different human activities. The Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians (the Carpathian Convention) represents one of the international efforts to protect the biodiversity of this area through multilateral cooperation. Serbia is one of the signatory parties, where the area protected by the Convention currently coincides with the Đerdap National Park (ĐNP) boundaries. Serbia mainly lags in protocol and amendment ratifications, which is suspected to hinder the potential benefits regarding the sustainable development of this region. By analyzing the selected sustainability indicators for the years 2003, 2011, and 2019 we tried to enlighten if developments were sustainable. The data were also presented by the spider evaluation method. Despite certain limitations in data availability, research showed that there are positive economic and environmental changes, despite depopulation and aging of local inhabitants. However, major efforts are still to be undertaken, especially regarding environmental sustainability and implementation of national and international regulation.
Abrahams, G. (2017). Constructing definitions of sustainable development. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 6(1), 34–47. https://doi.org/10.1108/SASBE-03-2017-0009
Andersen, I. (2020). The Carpathian Convention: a push to implementation, speech. https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/speech/carpathian-convention-push-implementation
Baycan-Levent, T., Brunisma, F., & Nijkamp, P. (2007). Urban Spiders: A Comparative Framework for Evaluation and Scenario Analysis. In M. Deakin, G. Mitchell, P. Nijkamp, & R. Vreeker (Eds.), Sustainable Urban Development Volume 2, The Environmental Assessment Methods (pp. 236–253). Taylor & Francis.
Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2018). Sustainability Indicators Past and Present: What Next? Sustainability, 10(5), Article 1688. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051688
Caponi, V. (2017). The effects of public sector employment on the economy. IZA World of Labor, 332, 1–10. http://doi.org/10.15185/izawol.332
Carpathian Convention, May 22–25, 2003, http://www.carpathianconvention.org/text-of-the-convention.html
Climate ADAPT. (2021). Adaptation in Carpathian Mountains. https://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/countries-regions/transnational-regions/carpathian-mountains/general
Danielsen, F., Jensen, A. E., Alviola, P. A., Balete, D. S., Mendoza, M., Tagtag, A., Custodio, C., & Enghoff, M. (2005). Does Monitoring Matter? A Quantitative Assessment of Management Decisions from Locally-based Monitoring of Protected Areas. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 2633–2652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-005-8392-z
Đerdap National Park. (2020a). About the Park. https://npdjerdap.rs/en/about-the-park/
Đerdap National Park. (2020b). Geoheritage. https://npdjerdap.rs/en/geoheritage/
Đerdap National Park. (2020c). Flora. https://npdjerdap.rs/en/flora/
Đerdap National Park. (2020d). Fauna. https://npdjerdap.rs/en/fauna/
Đerdap National Park. (2020e). Cultural Heritage. https://npdjerdap.rs/en/cultural-heritage/
Đerdap National Park. (2020f). Đerdap Geopark. https://npdjerdap.rs/en/djerdap-geopark/
Gratzer, G., & Keeton, S. W. (2017). Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda. Mountain Research and Development, 37(3), 246–253. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-17-00093.1
Gurung, A. B., Bokwa, A., Chełmicki, W., Elbakidze, M., Hirschmugl, M., Hostert, P., Ibisch, P., Kozak, J., Kuemmerle, T., Matei, E., Ostapowicz, K., Pociask-Karteczka, J., Schmidt, L., van der Linden, S., & Zebisch, M. (2009). Global change research in the Carpathian Mountain region. Mountain Research and Development, 29(3), 282–288. https://doi.org/10.1659/mrd.1105
Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia. (2021). Zaštićena prirodna dobra Srbije [Protected natural areas of Serbia]. https://cloud.gdi.net/visios/zzps
Institute of Public Health of Serbia. (2021). Zdravstveno-statističi godišnjak Republike Srbije 2020 [Health statistical yearbook of Republic of Serbia 2020]. https://www.batut.org.rs/download/publikacije/pub2020.pdf
Jabareen, Y. (2008). A New Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Development. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10, 179–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-006-9058-z
Kaygusuz, K. (2016). Hydropower as clean and renewable energy source for electricity generation. Journal of Engineering Research and Applied Science, 5(1), 359–369. http://www.journaleras.com/index.php/jeras/article/view/52/52
Kovačić, M., Zekić, A., & Violić, A. (2017). Analysis of Cruise Tourism on Croatian Rivers. Naše More, 64(1), 27–32. https://doi.org/10.17818/NM/2017/1.11
Lindholm, O., Greatorex, J. M., & Paruch, A. M., (2007). Comparison of methods for calculation of sustainability indices for alternative sewerage systems—Theoretical and practical considerations. Ecological Indicators, 7(1), 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.10.002
Our projects. (2021). http://www.carpathianconvention.org/projects.html
Pantić, M. (2014). Sustainable Development Perspectives for Serbian Mountain Areas: Lessons from the European Context [Doctoral dissertation, Technische Universität Dresden]. QUCOSA - Quality Content of Saxony. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-144339
Pantić, M. (2019). Izazovi demografskih promena u planinskim područjima Srbije [Demographic change challenges in Serbian mountain areas]. Institut za arhitekturu i urbanizam Srbije.
Pantić, M., & Milijić, S. (2021). The European Green Capital Award—Is It a Dream or Reality for Belgrade (Serbia)? Sustainability, 13(11), Article 6182. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116182
Popović, V., Milijić, S., & Vuković, P. (2012). Sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region in Serbia. Spatium, 28, 45–52. https://doi.org/10.2298/SPAT1228045P
Schönborn, G., Berlin, C., Pinzone, M., Hanisch, C., Georgoulias, K., & Lanz, M. (2019). Why social sustainability counts: The impact of corporate social sustainability culture on financial success. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 17, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2018.08.008
Sinding, K. (1999). Environmental impact assessment and management in the mining industry. Natural Resources Forum, 23(1), 57–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-8947.1999.tb00238.x
Song, P., Qi, L., Qian, X., & Lu, X. (2019). Detection of ships in inland river using high-resolution optical satellite imagery based on mixture of deformable part models. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 132, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpdc.2019.04.013
Starr, S. F. (2004). Conflict and Peace in Mountain Societies. In M. F. Price, L. F. Jansky, & A. A. Iastenia (Eds.), Key Issues for Mountain Areas (pp. 169–180). United Nations University Press.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (2005). Opštine u Srbiji 2004 [Municipalities in Serbia 2004]. https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2004/Pdf/G20042002.pdf
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (2009). Opštine u Srbiji 2008 [Municipalities in Serbia 2008]. https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2009/Pdf/G20092001.pdf
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (2012). Opštine i regioni u Republici Srbiji 2012 [Municipalities and regions in the Republic of Serbia 2012]. https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2012/Pdf/G20122008.pdf
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (2014). 2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Book 20. Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011 – Data by settlements. https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2014/Pdf/G20144008.pdf
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. (2020). Opštine i regioni u Republici Srbiji 2020 [Municipalities and regions in the Republic of Serbia 2020]. https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2020/Pdf/G202013047.pdf
Status of signature and ratification. (2021). http://www.carpathianconvention.org/status-of-signature-and-ratification.html
Turnock, D. (2002). Ecoregion-based conservation in the Carpathians and the land-use implications. Land Use Policy, 19(1), 47–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8377(01)00039-4
Turnock, D. (2008). The Drive for Modernization in Inter-War Eastern Europe: Changes in Rurality in the Carpathian Mountains 1918-1945. Geographica Pannonica, 12(1), 12–38. https://scindeks-clanci.ceon.rs/data/pdf/0354-8724/2008/0354-87240801012T.pdf
United Nations Environment Programme. (2007). Carpathians' Environment Outlook, 2007. https://www.unep.org/resources/report/carpathians-environment-outlook-2007
Uredba o utvrđivanju Prostornog plana područja posebne namene Nacionalnog parka Đerdap [Decree on Adopting the Special Purpose Area Spatial Plan of the Đerdap National Park]. Službeni glasnik Republike Srbije, No. 43 (2013).
Vallance, S., Perkins, H. C., & Dixon, J. E. (2011). What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts. Geoforum, 42(3), 342–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.01.002
Vujošević, M., Zeković, S., & Maričić, T. (2010). Postsocijalistička tranzicija u Srbiji i teritorijalni kapital Srbije – stanje, neki budući izgledi i predvidljivi scenariji [The post-socialist transition in Serbia and the territorial capital of Serbia – The state of the art, future prospects and scenarios]. Institut za arhitekturu i urbanizam Srbije.
Wagner, B., Hauer, C., & Habersack, H. (2019). Current hydropower developments in Europe. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 37, 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2019.06.002
World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/5987our-common-future.pdf
World Wildlife Fund. (2007). Addressing threats to nature in the Carpathian Mountains. https://www.suske.at/files/addressing_threats_to_carpathians.pdf
World Wildlife Fund. (2018). Carpathian Mountains: significant losses in Europe’s biodiversity hotspot. https://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?338710/Carpathian-Mountains-significant-losses-in-Europes-biodiversity-hotspot
Zeković, S., Vujošević, M., & Maričić, T. (2015). A Preliminary Analysis of Sustainable Development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Area. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic and Management Engineering, 9(7), 839–846. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1107674
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of the Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.