INTEGRATED MODEL OF RELIGIOUS TOURISM IN UNDERDEVELOPED DESTINATIONS
Keywords:religious tourism, integrated model, Cetinje, attitudes of the local population
The development of religious tourism in underdeveloped destinations is a quite complex, demanding, and challenging process. This study aims to address the issues related to the management of religious tourism destination and therefore contribute to establishing the professional management structure within the Old Royal Capital of Cetinje as a religious tourism destination. In order to facilitate future planning and organization inside and outside the destination, an integrated model of religious tourism development that can be applied in all the destinations in an early stage of their development or in undeveloped destinations is proposed. For the purpose of this paper, the attitudes of local people regarding the current development of religious tourism in the area of Cetinje (Montenegro) were explored. The total number of 161 residents was examined using a questionnaire method. The research results show that religious tourism is not well-developed in this area and therefore it is necessary to define precise instructions for developing a tourism product of this type. Based on the research findings, mission, vision, and strategic goals for the sustainable development of religious tourism in Cetinje were defined.
Bond, N., Packer, J., & Ballantyne, R. (2015). Exploring Visitor Experiences, Activities and Benefits at Three Religious Tourism Sites. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17, 471–481. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2014
Dillon, M. (1997). Pilgrims and pilgrimage in ancient Greece. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203352441
Fourie, J., Rosselló, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2015). Religion, Religious Diversity and Tourism. Kyklos, 68(1), 51–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/kykl.12066
Henderson, J. C. (2011). Religious Tourism and Its Management: The Hajj in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 541–552. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.825
Heydari Chianeh, R., Del Chiappa, G., & Ghasemi, V. (2018). Cultural and Religious Tourism Development in Iran: Prospects and challenges. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 29(2), 204–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2017.1414439
Jawabreh, O. A. A. (2017). Distinction of Jordan as a Destination for Religious Tourism. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 8(6), 1171–1182. Retrieved from https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/1643
Krešić D., Mikulić, J., & Miličević, K. (2013). The Factor Structure of Tourist Satisfaction at Pilgrimage Destinations: The Case of Medjugorje. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(5), 484–494. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1891
Lickorish, L. J., & Kershaw, A. G. (1958). The travel trade. London, UK: Practical Press.
Montenegro Statistical Office. (2015, 2016). Tourism – Releases 2015: Tourist arrivals and overnight stays January–December (Realises No. 41/2015; 64/2015; 92/2015; 116/2015; 146/2015; 170/2015; 193/2015; 213/2015; 231/2015; 257/2015; 282/2015; 12/2016) [Statistics]. Retrieved from Montenegro Statistical Office website: http://www.monstat.org/eng/page.php?id=1253&pageid=44
Montenegro Statistical Office. (2018). Arrivals and overnight stays – Release 2017: Survey on arrivals and overnight stays of tourists, total 2017 (Realise No. 34/2) [Statistics]. Retrieved from http://www.monstat.org/userfiles/file/turizam/din2018/ukupno2017k/Survey%20on%20arrivals%20and%20overnight%20stays%20of%20tourists,%20total%20-%202017.pdf
Moore, D. L. (2007). Overcoming religious illiteracy: A cultural studies approach to the study of religion in secondary education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230607002
Nedeljković, M., & Nedeljković, S. (2004). Akcija revitalizacije manastira Đurđevi Stupovi i njen značaj za razvoj verskog turizma u našoj zemlji [The revitalization action of Djurdjevi Stupovi Monastery and its significance for the development of religious tourism in our country]. Turizam, 8, 71–74. Retrieved from http://www.dgt.uns.ac.rs/turizam/arhiva/turizam8.pdf
Nolan, M. L., & Nolan, S. (1992). Religious sites as tourism attractions in Europe. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(92)90107-Z
Raj, R., Griffin, K., & Morpeth, N. (Eds.). (2013). Cultural tourism. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845939236.0000
Rasul, F., Fatima, U., & Sohail, S. (2016). Religion Tourism and Entrepreneurial Development (A Case Study Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh Shrine). South Asian Studies – A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, 31(1), 275–289. Retrieved from http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/18%20Farhat%20Rasul_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf
Richards, G. (Ed.). (2007). Cultural tourism: Global and local perspectives. New York, NY: The Haworth Press.
Smith, C. (2003). Theorizing Religious Effects Among American Adolescents. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158
Smith, M., MacLeod, N., & Hart Robertson, M. (2010). Key concepts in tourist studies. London, UK: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446251027
Smith, V. L. (1992). Introduction: the quest in guest. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(92)90103-V
Svoboda, J., Šalgovičová J., & Polakovič, A. (2013). Religion and tourism in Slovakia. European Journal of Science and Theology, 9(6), 125–132. Retrieved from http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/42/13_Svoboda%20et%20al.pdf
Ţală, M. L., & Pădurean, A. M. (2008). Dimensions of religious tourism. Amfiteatru Economic, 10(2), 242–253. Retrieved from http://www.amfiteatrueconomic.ro/RevistaDetalii_EN.aspx?Cod=20
Uriely, N., Israeli, A., & Reichel, A. (2003). Religious Identity and Residents’ Attitudes Toward Heritage Tourism Development: The Case of Nazareth. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(1), 69–84. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348002238881
Vukonić, B. (1990). Turizam i religija: Rasprava o njihovu suodnosu [Tourism and Religion: Exploring the relationship]. Zagreb, Croatia: Školska knjiga.