THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RISK-RELATED CHALLENGES IN TOURIST DESTINATION CHOICE
Keywords:pull factors, destination choice, risks, Serbia, Mediterranean
There are numerous pull forces that determine destination choice. In the contemporary turbulent conditions, safety and security risks have a growing role. This is particularly evident in the Mediterranean region, bearing in mind that the political crisis in the Arab world has reflected in this region as the largest receptive market. Therefore, the study has been conducted to determine which factors are the most important in the process of choosing a destination and whether the recent crises have affected travel habits. In addition to the descriptive statistics, the data obtained by the Likert scale were analyzed by independent samples t-test in SPSS. The results have revealed that price, service quality, and risk-related issues are the main parameters of destination choice. In this regard, the respondents expressed their understanding of contemporary security risks in the Mediterranean (terrorist acts, militant groups, migration crisis, etc.). The research also showed the influence of different sources of information on travel habits, primarily word-of-mouth process, and mass media. The crisis has affected the demand allocation, but not trip cancellation. Based on the abovementioned we can conclude that safety and security risks are not the only and decisive factor but represent an important parameter in the destination choice.
Al-Shammari, N., & Willoughby, J. (2019). Determinants of political instability across Arab Spring countries. Mediterranean Politics, 24(2), 196–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2017.1389349
Aras, B., & Falk, R. (2015). Authoritarian ‘geopolitics’ of survival in the Arab. Third World Quarterly, 36(2), 322–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1013307
Assael, H. (1995). Consumer behavior and marketing action (6th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
Awaritefe, O. D. (2004). Motivation and Other Considerations in Tourist Destination Choice: A Case Study of Nigeria. Tourism Geographies, 6(3), 303–330. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461668042000249638
Baker, D. M. A. (2014). The Effects of Terrorism on the Travel and Tourism Industry. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 58–67. https://doi.org/10.21427/D7VX3D
Barling J., & Fincham, F. (1979). Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Dimensions of Perceived Locus of Control. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 134(2), 313–314. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1979.10534064
Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a Sociology of International Tourism. Social Research, 39(1), 164–182. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40970087
Crompton, L. Y. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5
Crotts, J. C. (2003). Theoretical perspectives on tourist criminal victimization. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1), 92–98. [Reprint of original article published in 1996, 7(1), 2–9]. Retrieved from https://search.informit.com.au/ documentSummary;dn=200305728;res=IELAPA;type=pdf
Dann, M. S. G. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(77)90037-8
Denda, S., & Stojanović, J. (2016). Migration Crisis as a Security Challenge and Its Impacts on Tourism Demand. In D. Šantić (Ed.), Book of Abstracts of International Conference “Contemporary migration in a Changing World: New Perspectives and Challenges”, (p. 46). Belgrade: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Regional Studies Association and MIcARD.
Faulkner, B. (2001). Towards a framework for tourism disaster management. Tourism Management, 22(2), 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00048-0
Fesenmaier, D. P., & Jeng, J. M. (2000). Assessing structure in the pleasure trip planning process. Tourism Analysis, 5(1), 13–27. Retrieved from https://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?option2=author&value2=Fesenmaier%2c+Daniel+R&pageSize=10&index=7
Floyd, M. F., Gibson, H., Pennington-Gray, L., & Thapa, B. (2004). The Effect of Risk Perceptions on Intentions to Travel in the Aftermath of September 11, 2001. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 15(2–3), 19–38. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v15n02_02
Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2011). An exploratory inquiry into destination risk perceptions and risk reduction strategies of first time vs. repeat visitors to a highly volatile destination. Tourism Management, 32(2), 266–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.01.012
Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2006). Tourist Destination Risk Perception: The Case of Israel. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 14(2), 83–108. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v14n02_06
Gonzalez-Herrero, A., & Pratt, C. B. (1998). Marketing crises in tourism: Communication strategies in the United States and Spain. Public Relations Review, 24(1), 83–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(98)80022-2
George, R. (2010). Visitor perceptions of crime-safety and attitudes towards risk: The case of Table Mountain National Park, Cape Town. Tourism Management, 31(6), 806–815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.08.011
Groizard, L. J., Ismael, M., & Santana, M. (2016). The economic consequences of political upheavals: The case of the Arab Spring and international tourism. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2S2yxgi
Hamid, S., McCants, W., & Dar, R. (2017). Islamism after the Arab Spring: Between the Islamic State and the nation-state. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/islamism-after-the-arab-spring-between-the-islamic-state-and-the-nation-state/
Institute for Economics & Peace. (2012–2016). Global Terrorism Index. Retrieved from http://economicsandpeace.org/reports/
Iso-Ahola, E. S. (1982). Toward a social psychological theory of tourism motivation: A rejoinder. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 256–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(82)90049-4
Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1983). Towards a social psychology of recreational travel. Leisure Studies, 2(1), 45–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614368300390041
Kingsbury, P. T., & Brunn, S. D. (2004). Freud, tourism and terror: traversing the fantasies of post-September 11 travel magazines. Journal of Tourism and Travel Marketing, 15(2–3), 39–61. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v15n02_03
Kozak, M., Crotts, J. C., & Law, R. (2007). The Impact of the Perception of Risk on International Travellers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 233–242. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.607
Kozak, M. (2002). Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations. Tourism Management, 23(3), 221–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00090-5
Law, R. (2006). The Perceived Impact of Risks on Travel Decisions. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(4), 289–300. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.576
Lepp, A., & Gibson, H. (2003). Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 606–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(03)00024-0
Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E., & Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management, 29(3), 458–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.05.011
Mannell, R., & Iso-Ahola, S. (1987). Psychological nature of leisure and tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(3), 314–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(87)90105-8
Mansfeld, Y., & Winckler, O. (2015). Can this be spring? Assessing the impact of the “Arab Spring” on the Arab tourism industry. Tourism – An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 63(2), 205–223. Retrieved from https://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=205893&lang=en
Martin, W. C., & Lueg, J. E. (2013). Modeling Word-of-Mouth Usage. Journal of Business Research, 66(7), 801–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.06.004
Mayo, E., & Jarvis, L. (1981). The psychology of leisure travel: Effective Marketing and Selling of Travel Services. Boston, MA: CBI Publishing.
Mowen, J., & Minor, M. (1998). Consumer Behavior (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Oppewal, H., Huybers, T., & Crouch, I. G. (2015). Tourist destination and experience choice: A choice experimental analysis of decision sequence effects. Tourism Management, 48, 467–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.12.016
Pearce, P. L., & Caltabiano, M. L. (1983). Inferring travel motivation from travelers’ experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 22(2), 16–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728758302200203
Pearce, P. L. (1988). The Ulysses Factor: Evaluating Visitors in Tourist Settings. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Perles-Ribes, J. F., Ramón-Rodríguez, A. B., Moreno-Izquierdo, L., & Torregrosa Martí, M. T. (2016). Winners and losers in the Arab uprisings: Mediterranean tourism perspective. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(16), 1810–1829. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1225697
Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Tormala, Z. L. (2002). Thought confidence as a determinant of persuasion: The self–validation hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), 722–741. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1682
Plog, S. C. (1974). Why Destination Areas Rise and Fall in Popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly, 14(4), 55–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/001088047401400409
Qi, C. X., Gibson, H. J., & Zhang, J. J. (2009). Perceptions of Risk and Travel Intentions: The Case of China and the Beijing Olympic Games. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(1), 43–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775080902847439
Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Chaos, crises and disasters: a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 25(6), 669–683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.09.004
Rittichainuwat, B. H., Qu, H., & Mongkhonvanit, C. (2008). Understanding the motivation of travelers on repeat visits to Thailand. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(1), 5–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766707084216
Roehl, W. S., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (1992). Risk Perceptions and Pleasure Travel: An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 30(4), 17–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759203000403
Ryan, C. (1998). The travel career ladder: An Appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(4), 936–957. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00044-9
Ryan, C., Page, S. J., & Aicken, M. (Eds.). (2005). Taking Tourism to the Limits: Issues, Concepts and Managerial Perspectives. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.
Salamey, I. (2015). Post-Arab Spring: changes and challenges. Third World Quarterly, 36(1), 111–129. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.976025
Schroeder, A., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2014). Perceptions of crime at the Olympic Games. What role does media, travel advisories, and social media play? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20(3), 225–237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766714521809
Seyidov, J., & Adomaitienė, R. (2016). Factors influencing local touristʼs decision-making on choosing a destination: A case of Azerbaijan. EKONOMIKA, 95(3), 112–128. https://doi.org/10.15388/Ekon.2016.3.10332
Simpson, J. J., Simpson, P. M., & Cruz-Milán, O. (2016). Attitude towards immigrants and security: Effects on destination-loyal tourists. Tourism Management, 57, 373–386. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.06.021
Sirakaya, E., McLellan, W. R., & Uysal, M. (1996). Modeling Vacation Destination Decisions: A Behavioral Approach. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 5(1–2), 57–75. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v05n01_05
Sönmez, S. F. & Graefe, A. R. (1998). Influence of Terrorism Risk on Foreign Tourism Decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(97)00072-8
Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Mazzarol, T. (2008). Factors influencing word of mouth effectiveness: receiver perspectives. European Journal of Marketing, 42(3), 344–364. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560810852977
Tasci, A. D. A., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination Image and Its Functional Relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413–425. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287507299569
Timothy, D. J. (2006). Safety and security issues in tourism. In D. Buhalis & C. Costa (Eds.), Tourism Management Dynamics: Trends, management, and tools (pp. 19–28). Oxford, UK; Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann.
United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2011–2017). Tourism Highlights. Retrieved from http://www2.unwto.org/search/node/tourism%20highlights
United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2018). UNWTO Tourism Highlights (2018th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284419876
Uysal, M., Li, X., & Sirakaya-Turk, E. (2008). Push-pull dynamics in travel decisions. In O. Haemoon & P. Abraham (Eds.), Handbook of Hospitality Marketing Management (pp. 412– 439). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Ltd.
Vincent, V. C., & De Los Santos, G. (1990). Winter Texans: Two Segments of the Senior Travel Market. Journal of Travel Research, 29(1), 9–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759002900103
World Economic Forum. (2011–2017). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/search?query=The+Travel+%26+Tourism+Competitiveness+Report
World Tourism and Travel Council. (2019). Travel & tourism economic impact 2019 world. Retrieved from https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/regions-2019/world2019.pdf